Marketing Tip::

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Do you know what you are selling? That is to say, are you familiar describing it to a customer, in user's terms, in intimate detail? Some marketers make the mistake of describing products or services from the point of the view of the person designing or testing them. Use simple every day language to make a compelling firsthand assessment of the item or program in question.

Try to learn as much as you possibly can about the product or service you are offering. If it is all-possible try to use it in exactly the same way a customer would. When you speak from firsthand experience about the items you are trying to sell, it is much easier to make statements you know you can stand behind.  Knowing both your product and prospect will help you make sales.


Embroidery Terms

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  • E-H
  • I-L
  • M-P
  • Q-T
  • U-Z
Acetate - Silk like in appearance and feel. Resistant to stretch and shrinkage. Fiber-forming substance in cellulose acetate.
Acrylic - Soft and woolly. Appearance varies from smooth and thin to a thick woven texture. Springs back when crushed.
Applique - Decoration or design made separately then embroidered, pasted, or sewn on a fabric or garment. Often used on lace, leather, woven, or knit fabrics, especially fleece.
Argyle - Multicoloured diamond pattern used in knitwear, especially socks and sweaters.
Basket weave - Variation of the plain weave in which two or more warp and weft threads are woven side by side to resemble a "basket" look Fabrics have a loose construction and a flat appearance.
Bird's eye - Small diamond pattern accentuated by a dot in the middle, resembling the eye of a bird. Commonly used in suiting.
Blends - Two or more types of staple fibers in one yarn to achieve colour mixtures, unusual dyeing variations, or better performance characteristics. The most common blend is cotton and polyester.
Blind embossing - Design stamp without metallic leaf or ink, giving a bas-relief effect.
Blind Stamping - Hot-stamping without foil. The approach, used often with leather, gives a subtler imprint than hot stamping and a shallower imprint than debossing.
Buckram - Liner, which adds support to the front of a cap.
Canvas - Heavy, firm, strong plain weave or basket weave fabric often made of cotton. It is produced in many grades and qualities and may have a soft or firm hand.
Casting - Method in which molten metal is forced into a mold of rubber or plaster, then cooled into the desired shape.
Chambray - Plain weave fabric usually of cotton, rayon, or a blend of these. Chambray usually has yarn dyed yarns in the warp direction, and white yarns in the filling direction. It is often made in striped patterns. It is also frequently made with indigo or pigment dye to fade with multiple washing.
Cloisart - Hot-stamp procedure where the desired logo/copy is foil hot-stamped on a solid brass or metal base, then covered with epoxy dome.
Cloisonne - Product in which a colored paste, made from ground glass, is applied to recessed areas, then fired at 1400 degrees and polished by stone and pumice to achieve brilliant color. Since gullies and ridges separate each individual color, fine lines between them are difficult to achieve.
Contrasting - Using an embroidery thread colour different from the colour of the garment. For examples, yellow and white thread used to embroider a navy blue shirt.
Coordinating - Thread colours are chosen that coordinate with the garment. For examples, a navy blue shirt with a dark green collar and cuffs would have a dark green embroidery.
Cotton-combed - Smooth, even yarns are made of long staple cotton fibers into fine weave or fine gauge knit fabrics.
Cotton-ring spun - Spinning process that further refines a yarn to achieve the desired yarn size. This results in a smoother and more uniform yarn and produces fabrics that take dyes evenly and have superior hand feel.
Cotton-sueded - Fabric that goes through a brushing process to raise the nap and give the garment a soft hand.
Cover Stitch - Multineedle decorative topstitch traditionally used on T-shirts, Henley, and sweatshirts, but more recently used as a fashion/design detail on a variety of knits.
Deboss and color-fill - Combination of hot stamping with debossing, so foil fills an image that is pushed down into the product.
Debossing - Depression of an image into a material such as paper, leather or suede, so the image sits below the product surface.
Decal transfer - Imprinting method in which the decal is printed on an offset or letterset press, submerged in water and placed on the product. Excess water and air squeegeed off and the product is kiln-fired, a process that fuses the decal with the glaze.
Denim - Twill weave, yarn dyed fabric, usually made of cotton/polyester blend. The warp yarns are coloured and the filling yarns are white.
Die - Mold into which molten metal, plastic or other material is forced to make a specific shape. Also, a tool of very hard material used to press a particular shape into or onto a softer material.
Die-casting - Process where molten metal is injected into the cavity of a carved die.
Die-cutting - Using sharp steel blades to cut shapes from printed sheets.
Die-stamp - Steel plate engraved with the desired image, generally used to apply a gold or silver imprint.
Die Striking - Method of producing emblems and other flat specialties. A blank, cut from a metal sheet, is struck with a hammer that holds the die.
Double knit - Fabric knitted on a machine by interlocking loops with a double stitch (two sets of needles). Contrasts with single needle construction. Double knit fabrics are heavier than single knit fabrics.
Drop needle - Knitting technique that disengages a knitting needle so as to prevent knitting a stitch. This results in a vertical rib-like appearance. Typically this technique is done on interlock (double knit) constructions.
Dye transfer - In photography, a process of producing color prints by tanning photographic emulsions and using them to transfer dye solutions to film or paper coated with gelatin.
Dyeing - Method used to import colour to textiles. It involves the use of complete organic or chemical dyestuffs, which under proper conditions will actually combine with the textile fibers. There are many ways fabric can be dyed.
Electronic (Engraving) - Any artwork from child's signature to newspaper is reproduced as long as it can be wrapped around a cylindrical drum.
Embedment - Medallion, logo or everyday object is buried deep in what appears to be solid glass but instead is acrylic.
Emboss and color-fill - Combining hot stamping with embossing (opposite of debossing). A raised image is stamped with foil. True embossing cannot be performed on vinyl.
Embossing - Raising of an image on a product accomplished by pressing the material between concave and convex dies.
Embroidery - Art of creating and producing ornamental needlework consisting of designs worked on fabric with high luster threads either by hand or machine.
Embroidery - Design stitched onto fabric through the use of high-speed, computer-controlled sewing machines. Emblem embroidered design with a finished edge, commonly an insignia of identification, usually worn on outer clothing. Also known as a crest or patch.
Engineered stripes
- Usually yarn dyed knitwear made on modern knitting equipment with wide bands of multiple colours. The effect is not possible to achieve on less sophisticated repeat machines. This is a jersey or pique fabric with different, more complicated needle selections.
Engraving - Cutting an image into metal, wood or glass by one of three methods: computerized engraving, hand tracing or hand engraving.
Etched - Imprinting method in which the product to be imaged is coated with a protective coating that resists acid. The image is then exposed, leaving bare metal and protected metal. The acid attacks only the exposed metal, leaving the image etched onto the surface
Facing - Material hooped or placed on top of fabrics that have a definable nap or surface texture, such as corduroy and terry cloth, prior to embroidery. The facing compacts the wale or nap and holds the stitches above it.
Fired decals - Decal that actually becomes part of the piece to which it is applied.
Flannel - Light to heavyweight plain or twill weave fabric with a napped surface. Can be made of cotton or wool. The brushing process creates insulating air cells that provide more warmth than plain cotton.
Fleece - Luxurious fabric with a thick deep nap that provides warmth without weight. May be twill or plain weave. The term correctly applies only to wool fabrics, although there are so-called fleeces of other fabrics.
Flexography - Imprinting method for paper in which a flexible rubber plate is wrapped around a cylinder. As the paper moves under the plate, another roller presses it against it, and the ink is transferred on the paper.
Foil stamping - Process in which a metal plate or die is heated and then pressed against foil into a surface, causing the pigments of the foil to transfer to the surface. Also called hot stamping.
French Terry of Fleece - Pile knit fabric with uncut loops on one side. It is called fleece if the loops are sheared and brushed. A pile, woven fabric with uncut loops is called terrycloth.
Full-fashioned - Knitting process whereby the pattern shape of an individual garment piece is formed on the knitting machine as opposed to being cut from a piece of cloth. Full-fashioned garments are typically expensive sweater knits where the sleeve is knit together with the body of the machine. Full-fashioned collar trims allow for one to control the shape/angle of the collar points.
Garment-washed - This means a cap has been sewn and made and then washed in a washing facility. This creates the popular faded, worn look around the edges and looks more natural than the material pre-washed caps or garments.
Gusset - Inlaid piece of fabric, usually triangular, between arm and body of shirt. Allows ease of movement.
Hand - Quality of characteristics of fabrics perceived by sense of touch, e.g. softness, firmness, drapability, fineness of the fell.
Hand or manual (Engraving) - Used for detailed work on materials ranging from metal to eggshells. Not practical for volume orders.
Heat-transfer printing (direct-transfer process) - Imprinting method in which an image is screened onto a transfer substrate, which is then laid directly on the material to be imprinted. The image is transferred from the substrate to the material through heat and pressure.
Heat-transfer printing (sublimation) - Process in which a design is transferred to a synthetic fabric by heat and pressure. The heat causes the inks to turn into a gas so that they penetrate the fabric and combine with it to form a permanent imprint. Also called a plastocal transfer.
Henley - Knit shirt with buttoned placket at the neckline with no collar. Copied from a shirt originally worn by a row in Henley, England.
Herringbone - Broken twill weave fabric created by changing the direction of twill from right to left and back again. This creates a chevron pattern. Herringbone fabrics are made in a variety of weights, patterns, and fiber types. Herringbone patterns can also be knitted as a jacquard.
Hologram - Combination of several layers of refractive material that causes the image to have a three-dimensional effect.
Hot stamping - Dry imprinting process in which a design or type is set on a relief die that is subsequently impressed by heat and pressure onto the printing surface.
Hot type - Type composed by machine and made from molten metal.
Injection molding - Process in which molten metal or plastic is injected into the cavity of a carved die.
Jacquard - Type of woven or knitted fabric, which is constructed on a special machine that uses needle selection which results in intricate, complex all-over designs. Single knit jacquards are commonly knit with two separate coloured yarns that are knit together in a row. Double knit jacquard are knit with up to five separate coloured yarns across a row. Double knits are generally much more intricate, more colourful and yet heavier (mostly used in long sleeve product). Woven jacquard fabrics include brocade, damask, and tapestry.
Jersey - Single knit construction which has rows of vertical loops (knit stitches) on the face and rows of horizontal half-loop (purl stitches) on the back. Jersey can be any fiber content and can be knit flat or circular. Often used in short sleeve knit shirts.
Knit - Fabrics constructed by interlocking a series of loops of one or more yarns by hand or by machine. Can be any fiber content. (See double knit, interlock, and jersey).
Laminated - Coated with clear plastic or two separate sheets of paper joined together as a single sheet to provide a special thickness or varying colors from side to side.
Laser (Engraving) - Imprinting method by which art or lettering is cut into a material by a laser beam that vaporizes the portion exposed through openings in a template.
leather (one type of skin or hide made to resemble another type usually called "bonded leather" or "laminated leather").
Lenticular printing - Process of creating multidimensional, animated or bi-view effects by photographing with an extremely fine screen and placing plastic made up of tiny lenses over the top.
Letterpress printing - Printing method in which ink is carried on a raised surface to the page or object being printed.
Liquid crystals - Technology used to produce temperature reactive products that change colors, going through a range of reddish browns, greens, and blues.
Litho laminating - Process of mounting a printed lithography sheet to single-faced corrugated to produce a display-quality piece that is structural corrugated.
Locker loop - Looped piece of fabric in the neck of a garment for the convenience of hanging the garment of a hook. Can also be located at the center of the back yoke on the inside or outside of the garment. Interlock - Firm double knit fabric. Both sides of the fabric look the same (similar to the face of jersey). Used in short sleeve knit shirts.
Lycra - DuPont's trademark from spandex fiber. Spandex has excellent stretch and is always blended with other fibers, imparting stretch to the resulting fabric.
Monogram - Embroidered design composed of one or more letters, usually the initials in a name. Pad printing - Method of imprinting in which a recessed surface is covered with ink. When the plate is wiped clean, ink remains in the recessed area. A silicone pad then presses against the plate, pulls the ink out of the recesses and is pressed directly against the product.
Microfiber - Super fine polyester filament yarn recently developed. Microfiber has superior hand feel and draping characteristics to ordinary polyester yarn. Because the fabric is high-count polyester or nylon yarn, it is durable, water-repellent, and windproof, and retains its colour, resilience, and soft touch.
Nap - Raised surface or pile of a fabric, such as fleece, formed by distressing it.
Nylon - High strength, high abrasion resistance, low absorbency, good elasticity. Texture varies from smooth and crisp to soft and bulky.
Oxford - Soft, somewhat porous and rather stout cotton shirting weave gives a silk like finish, also made from spun rayon, acetate, and other man-made fibers. Oxford also means a woolen or worsted fabric with a grayish cast.
Panels - Five and six-panel caps. Six panels sewn together from the crown of the cap creating a seam down the front of the cap. Good for embroidery, but not a good choice for screen-printing. A five-panel cap has five panels sewn together to form the crown of the cap. Since there is no seam down the front of the cap, five panels are an ideal choice for screen-printing or embroidery.
Pantograph (Engraving) - Master letters or designs are traced with a stylus that is connected to and followed by a cutting tool that pushes the lettering or image into metal. Used in many jewelry shops and to engrave silver-plated bowls and cups.
Photographic imaging (Engraving) - 1. Photometal processes actually develop metal by using photosensitive, anodized aluminum in either metal stock or metal sheet stock. 2. Chemical etching uses negative or camera-ready artwork, exposes it and coats the metal using acid or other more toxic chemicals to eat away impressions on the metal not covered by film.
Pigment dyed - Caps are coloured with a particular pigment that reacts with the washing to create a faded look.
Pincheck - Very small check pattern that is popular for suits sportswear and outwear.
Pique - Single knit construction also know as honeycomb or mesh. An open knit surface with a coarser than jersey or interlock.
Plackets - (slits in apparel forming a closure). A small boxed area at the bottom of where the buttons are.
Polyester - Versatile in weights and textures for weaves and knits. Resists wrinkling. Excellent shape retention.
Profile - Height of a cap’s crown. Low-profile is approximately 3.5". Regular profile is approximately 3.75". Pro-style is somewhere in-between the two. Melton - Dense, thick coating fabric with a smooth face, made with a tight plain or twill weave and two sets of softly twisted filling yarns. It is heavily full napped to hide all traces of the weave. Named for Melton Mowbray, a town in Leicestershire, England, where the original cloth was used to make hunting outfits.
Raglan - Raglan sleeve is stitched under the arm and in two parallel lines leading from the armpit to the neck. It makes for ease of movement.
Reverse jersey - Knit that uses the backside of jersey fabric for the face of the garment.
Rib knit - Knitted fabric produced with two sets of needles (double knit) in which the vertical rows of loops (wales) can be seen alternately on the face and back. Stretch in the width is excellent.
Screenprinting - Imprinting method in which the image is transferred to the printed surface by ink squeezed through a stenciled screen stretched over a frame. Screens are treated with a light-sensitive emulsion, and then film positives are put in contact with the screens and exposed to light. The light hardens the emulsion not covered by the film, leaving a soft area on the screen for the squeegee to force ink through. Also called silk-screening.
Sheepskin - General term for a tanned hide with the wool still intact. Used to make exceptionally durable outerwear.
Sherpa fleece - Fleece fabric where the brushed/napped side is used as the face of the garment.
Storm flap - Strip of fabric sewn under or over the front zip or snap closure of outerwear garments to form a barrier against wind and moisture.
Sublimation - Dye transfer process where the image consists of a colored dye permanently embedded into the material surface of pores. Used to imprint messages, graphics and photographs on a variety of items, primarily mousepads, mugs, T-shirts, caps and trophy medals.
Sueded nylon - A fabric that goes through a brushing process to raise the nap and give the garment a soft hand.
Tackle Twill - Letters or numbers cut from polyester or rayon twill fabric that is commonly used for athletic teams and organizations. Tackle twill appliques attached to a garment have an adhesive backing that tacks them in place; the edges of the appliques are then zipzap stitched.
Taslon - Durable nylon fabric that is generally used for rugged outerwear.
Tencel - Produced by Courtaulds from the cellulose in harvested wood pulp. Fabrics with Tencel have superior shrinkage control characteristics. The unique properties produce deep vibrant colours.
Thermal (Engraving) - Melts an image into the metal, based on a die. Often used for small items such as name badges and small signs. Rack Stitch Knit pattern produced by a shift in the needle bed that creates a herringbone effect.
Tonal - Using a matching colour thread to embroider a garment. For example, a navy shirt tonal embroidery would use a matching navy thread to create an embossed look.
Tone on tone - different shades of the same colour as the garment is used for embroidery thread. For example, a navy blue shirts with a light blue and royal blue embroidery.
Twill - One of the three basic weaves (the other are plain and satin). A diagonal rib (twill) generally running upward from left to right (right hand twill) characterizes it. Left hand twill (traditional denim weave) has the diagonal rib running upward from right to left. Twill weaves are used to produce a strong, durable firm fabric.

Warp - Lengthwise grain in woven fabric.

Weft - Crosswise grain in a woven fabric. Weft is also known as "fill".

Windowpane - Simple, boxy check or plaid pattern using a minimum of colours and thin lines to form large squares or rectangles with clear centers, like windowpanes.

Yoke - Contoured portion of a garment, usually at the shoulder or hip.